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"Never forget the first three rules of ice climbing: do not fall, do not fall and do not fall." It is this advice that every novice ice leader hears. And so, despite countless technological advances to ice protection over the past six decades, ice racks sometimes still get the skeptic's crooked look. It is as if we climb with the psychological scars of an earlier generation.

Alpinist 31 outlined the history of the modern ice screw. In the process of working with Hermann Huber on the history of the ice screw, we were also fortunate to learn the histories of other more exotic forms of ice protection. Herein, we present what was available to climbers before the advent of modern screws and the cause of the mistrust we still hold today.

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